Titanium is the IVB element in the periodic table, which looks like steel and has a melting point of 1 672 °C. It is a refractory metal. Titanium is rich in the earth's crust, much higher than common metals such as Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb. Titanium in China is extremely rich in resources. In the ultra-large vanadium-titanium magnetite found in the Panzhihua region of Sichuan, the associated titanium metal reserves amount to approximately 420 million tons, which is close to the sum of proven titanium reserves.glenflange
Pure titanium mechanical properties, good plasticity, easy processing, if any impurities, especially O, N, C increase the strength and hardness of titanium, but will reduce its plasticity, increase brittleness.
Titanium is an easily passivated metal, and in an oxygen-containing environment, its passive film can heal itself after being damaged. Therefore, the dry etching medium is stable. Titanium and titanium alloys have excellent corrosion resistance and can only be attacked by the concentration of hydrofluoric acid. Particularly stable, titanium or titanium alloys are still brighter than they were when they were removed, which is far superior to stainless steel.glenflange
Another important characteristic of titanium is its low density. Its strength is 3.5 times that of stainless steel and 1.3 times that of aluminum alloy. It is the highest among all industrial metal materials.glenflange
Liquid titanium can dissolve almost all metals and form various alloys such as solid solutions or metal compounds. The addition of alloying elements such as Al, V, Zr, Sn, Si, Mo, and Mn can improve the performance of titanium to meet the needs of different sectors. For example, Ti-Al-Sn alloys have high thermal stability and can work for a long time at relatively high temperatures; superplastic alloys represented by Ti-Al-V alloys can be elongated by 50% to 150%. Machining molding, its maximum elongation can reach 2 000%. In general, the plastic processing of the alloy has a maximum elongation of no more than 30%.
Because of the above-mentioned excellent properties, titanium enjoys the good name of “Future Metal”. Titanium alloys have been widely used in various sectors of the national economy. They are indispensable materials for rockets, missiles and space shuttles. A large number of titanium alloys are used in ships, chemical industry, electronic devices and communication equipment, as well as in some light industrial sectors.glenflange
However, titanium is currently expensive, limiting its widespread use.